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Laboratory of National Standards in the Field of Magnetic Measurements

History of Establishment

The following units of measurement are reproduced in the Laboratory

Main Research Activities of the Laboratory

Role of the Laboratory in the Country

Participation of the Laboratory in Home and Foreign Organizations and Structures

International Cooperation

Principal Specialists Working in the Laboratory

Services Offered by the Laboratory

Development of the Laboratory

Intellectual Activities of the Laboratory

Main Scientific Publications

Participation in the International Conferences



History of Establishment

  • 1918 - Establishment of the Laboratory. Prof. L.V.Zalutsky was the first Chief of the Laboratory from 1918 to 1927, formation of the basis for the system of measurement of the magnetic parameters of materials

  • 1927-1942 - Prof. E.G.Sramkov was the Chief of the Laboratory, establishment of the first standards of magnetic quantities

  • 1944-1945 and 1947-1953 - Prof. E.T.Chernyshyov was the Chief of the Laboratory, development of the methods for determination of the magnetic parameters of materials

  • 1945-1946 and 1954-1957 - Prof. B.M.Yankovsky was the Chief of the Laboratory, setting the absolute methods for reproduction of the units of magnetic quantities, organization of the activities on determination of the gyromagnetic ratio of proton

  • 1957-1969 - Candidate of Science E.N.Chechurina was the Chief of the Laboratory, development of the basis for the measurement assurance system of applied problems of magnetic measurements

  • 1969-1976 - Candidate of Science N.V.Studentsov was the Chief of the Laboratory, establishment of the national standards of magnetic induction in the dc and ac fields, and magnetic flux, as well as All-Union calibration chains of the first generation

  • 1976 - up to now - Prof. V.Ya.Shifrin is the Chief of the Laboratory, establishment of the modern system of measurement standards - the national standards of magnetic quantities and the measurement assurance system in this field of measurement, adjustment of the gyromagnetic ratio of proton and helium isotopes, reproduction of ampere using magnetic quantities



The following units of measurement are reproduced in the Laboratory
in the field of constant and alternating magnetic fields (up to 10 kHz):

  • magnetic induction - T
  • magnetic flux - Wb
  • magnetic moment - A.m2
  • magnetic induction gradient - T/m
  • magnetic susceptibility - SI unit
  • ratios of the units - Wb/T, T/A, Wb/A, (T/m)/A

Main Measurement Standards

  • National primary standard of magnetic induction in the dc field, magnetic flux, ratios between magnetic induction in the ac field and current, ratios between magnetic flux and magnetic induction
    • 1.10-5-1.10-4 T at f=0 Hz, S0=1.10-6-3.10-7
    • 1.10-5-1.10-4 T/A at f=1-1.104 Hz, S0=3.10-4-1.10-4
    • 1.10-5-1.10-2 Wb, S0=1.10-2-1.10-5
    • 1.10-3-5 Wb/Т, S0=1.10-3-1.10-5
    • 0o, 90o, uncertainties 2’’-10’’

  • National primary standard of magnetic momen
    1.10-20 A.м, δ0=0,01 %

  • Working standard of magnetic flux in non-linear-hysteresis media
    • 1.10-5-1.10-2 Wb, S0=2.10-2-1.10-3
    • 1.10-3-1.103 А, S0=1.10-3
    • 1.10-3-1.103 А/м, S0=1.10-3

  • Working standard of magnetic induction in the ac field
    • 1.10-5-1.10-3 Т/A, S0=1.10-3
    • 1.10-1-10 Wb/Т, S0=1.10-3

  • Highest-accuracy working standard of magnetic induction gradien
    • 1.10-9-3 Т/м
    • 1.10-5-1,5 Т/(м.A)

  • Highest-accuracy working standard of magnetic susceptibility
    1.10-7-1.10-2 SI unit, δ0=(0,5-3) %


Main Research Activities of the Laboratory

  • Establishment of the national primary standards in the field of magnetic measurements as the basic element of the measurement assurance system in the country
  • More precise experimental determination of the gyromagnetic ratio of proton and the gyromagnetic ratios of atoms - isotopes of helium, potassium, etc. applied in precision measuring magnetic-resonance transducers of magnetic induction
  • Establishment of the working standards to verify measuring instruments of magnetic quantities
  • Working out of technological normative documentation (GOST’s, procedures for verification and testing, etc.)
  • Performance of certification testing for home and foreign measuring instruments with the purpose of pattern approval


Role of the Laboratory in the Country

The Laboratory is the leading subdivision in Russia in the field of measurement assurance of magnetic measurements, which are used for the following basic industrial and scientific applications that are very important for human life:

  • Study of physical nature of terrestrial magnetism, its dynamic development and influence on global and local physical processes including depth, climatic and medical effects, earthquake prediction, as well as for some other practical applications
  • Geophysical investigations of natural space-time distribution of the parameters of the terrestrial magnetic field on its surface aiming at prospecting and estimation of new raw material resources
  • Sea and aerospace navigation of watercraft and aircraft
  • Determination of the magnetic parameters of technological objects and searching for hidden ones, also in the interests of defense
  • Study of magnetic fields in the near and far space
  • Study of human magnetic fields and the influence on them by magnetic fields with different parameters aiming at medical diagnostics and treatment
  • Determination of the quality and technical parameters of products of power-plant engineering, electrical engineering, metallurgy, machine-tool building, transport equipment using the non-contact methods
  • Solving the problems of electromagnetic compatibility and trouble-shooting of the components of sophisticated devices from the electronic and instrument-making industries
  • Ecological problems connected with magnetic fields of energy-intensive technological objects


Participation of the Laboratory in Home and Foreign Organizations and Structures

The Laboratory takes part in the activities of the Consultative Committee on Electricity and Magnetism of the BIPM, in international conferences of the CPEM and others, organizes the work of the Technical Committee of Russia in the field of magnetic measurements.


International Cooperation

The Laboratory carries out joint research on adjustment of the gyromagnetic ratio of proton together with the national metrology institutes of the USA (NIST) and South Korea (КRISS), performs comparisons of measurement standards in the field of magnetic measurements together with the metrological institutes of other countries.


Principal Specialists Working in the Laboratory

  • Group on Measuring Instruments for Magnetic Induction in DC Fields

    • Prof. Vladlen Ya. Shifrin, Doctor of Science, Chief of the Laboratory
      phone +7 (812) 251-76-02, + 7 (812) 323-96-23

    • Tamazi I. Chikvadze, Leading Scientist, Candidate of Science, Deputy Chief
      phone +7 (812) 251-76-02, + 7 (812) 323-96-23

    • Vyacheslav N. Khorev, Senior Scientist, Candidate of Science
      phone +7 (812) 251-76-02, + 7 (812) 323-96-23

  • Group on Measuring Instruments for Magnetic Induction in AC Fields

    • Vladimir N. Kalabin, Senior Scientist
      phone +7 (812) 251-76-02, + 7 (812) 323-96-23

  • Group on Measuring Instruments for Magnetic Flux, Magnetic Moment, Characteristics of Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Induction Gradient

    • Vyacheslav N. Khorev, Senior Scientist, Candidate of Science
      phone +7 (812) 251-76-02, + 7 (812) 323-96-23

    • Sergey L. Voronov, Senior Scientist
      phone +7 (812) 251-76-02, + 7 (812) 323-96-23


Services Offered by the Laboratory

The Laboratory provides for calibration, verification and certification testing of measuring instruments intended for reproduction and measurement of the following magnetic quantities:

  • magnetic induction in the dc field (calibration setups, magnetometers, measures) in the ranges 1.10-5-1.10-4 T and 1.10-5-2.10-2 T/A with the uncertainty 3.10-4-1 %
  • magnetic induction in the ac field (calibration setups, tesla meters, measures, measuring induction coils) in the ranges 1.10-9-1.10-3 T, 1.10-5-1.10-2 T/A, 0.1-10 Wb/T and 1-1.104 Wb/T with the uncertainty 0.3-10 %
  • magnetic flux (measures, flux meters, ferric testers) in the ranges 1.10-4-1.10-2 Wb and 1.10-5-1.10-2 Wb/A with the uncertainty 0.1-5 %
  • magnetic induction gradient (magnetic gradiometers, measures) in the ranges 1.10-9-3 T/m and 1.10-7-2 Тл/m.A with the uncertainty 1-30 %
  • magnetic moment (measures, measuring induction coils, magnetometers) in the range 1.10-5-20 А.m2 with the uncertainty 0.3-5 %
  • magnetic susceptibility (reference materials, measures, etc.) in the range 1.10-7-1.10-2 SI units with the uncertainty 1.5-15 %
  • static magnetic characteristics of magnetically soft materials and parameters of magnetically hard materials (measuring setups, reference materials, saturation magnetic moment measures) in the ranges 1.10-5-1.10-2 Wb, 1.10-3-1.103 А, 1.10-4-1.105 А/m with the uncertainty 1-5 %

The Laboratory works out and ensures the metrological expertise of procedures for measurement and verification of measuring instruments of magnetic quantities, makes precise measurements of the parameters of magnetic fields and the magnetic parameters of technological objects in the above measuring ranges.


Intellectual Activities of the Laboratory

The Laboratory has worked out and introduced the following normative documents currently in force:

  1. GOST 8.030-91. GSI (State Measuring Instrument). National primary standard and State calibration chain for measuring instruments of magnetic induction in the dc field in the range 1.10-12-5.10-2 T, constant magnetic flux, magnetic induction and magnetic moment in the frequency range 0-20000 Hz. М.: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1992
  2. GOST 8.231-84 “National primary standard and State calibration chain for measuring instruments of magnetic moment and magnetic susceptibility”
  3. RD 50-486-84 (Working Paper). Procedural instructions. Magnetic flux coils and measuring coils. Methods and means of verification
  4. RD 50-487-84. Procedural instructions. Reference measuring instruments of magnetic induction in the dc magnetic field from 1.10-10 to 5.10-2 T. Methods and means of verification
  5. RD 50-488-84. Procedural instructions. Reference 2nd Grade measuring instruments of ac magnetic field from 1.10-13 to 3.10-2 T. Frequency range 1-20000 Hz. Methods and means of verification
  6. MI 156-78 (Measurement Procedure). Procedure for verification of working measuring instruments in the dc field in the range 1.10-8-5.10-2 T
  7. MI 166-78. Procedure for verification of working measuring instruments of magnetic induction in the ac magnetic field
  8. MI 191-79. Procedure for verification of reference and working measuring instruments of magnetic moment
  9. MI 940-85. GSI. Measures of magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic, diamagnetic and weak-magnetic materials. Verification procedure


Main Scientific Publications of the Laboratory

  1. V.Ya.Shifrin, C.G.Kim, and P.G.Park, Atomic magnetic resonance based current source”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(3), pp. 833-836, (1996)
  2. V.Ya.Shifrin, Po Gyu Park, Cheol Gi Kim, V.N.Khorev, and Chang Ho Choi, Experimental Determination of the Gyromagnetic Ratio of the Helium-4 Atom in Terms of that of the Helium-3 Nucleus, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 46(2), pp. 97-100, (1997)
  3. N.V.Studentsov, Systems of units and fundamental constants, Izmeritelnaya Tekhnika, No. 3, 1997, pp. 3-7
  4. V.Ya.Shifrin, V.N.Khorev, P.G.Park, Chang Ho Choi, C.S.Kim, A new experimental determination of the gyromagnetic ratio of proton in water by the weak field method, Izmeritelnaya Tekhnika, No. 4, 1998, pp. 68-72
  5. V.Ya.Shifrin, P.G.Park, V.N.Khorev, C.H.Choi, and C.S.Kim, A new low-field determination of the proton gyromagnetic ratio in water, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 47(3), June, pp. 638-643, (1998)
  6. V. Ya.Shifrin, P. G.Park, V. N.Khorev, C. H.Choi, and S. Lee, Determination of the tesla-to-ampere ratio for KRISS-VNIIM gamma _p '-experiments, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 48(2), April, pp. 196-199, (1999)
  7. V.Ya.Shifrin. V.N.Khorev, Po Gyu Park, The Precise System for the Direct Current Reproduction on a Basis of Atom Magnetic Resonance in Helium-4", Metrologia , 36(3), Paris, 1999
  8. V.Ya.Shifrin, E.B.Alexandrov, T.I.Chikvadze, V.N.Kalabin, N.N.Yakobson, V.N.Khorev and P.G.Park, Magnetic Flux Density Standard for Geomagnetometers, Metrologia, 37(3), Paris, 2000
  9. P.G.Park, Y.G.Kim, V.Ya.Shifrin, V.N.Khorev, Precise standard system for low dc magnetic field reproduction, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), pp. 3107-3111, 2002
  10. V.Ya.Shifrin, V.N.Khorev, A.E.Shilov, P.G.Park, Research of long-time stability of an atomic magnetic resonance standard system for reproduction of direct current and magnetic flux density, IEEE. Trans. Meas. Instrum, special issue, 2003
  11. V.Ya.Shifrin, T.I.Chikvadze, V.N.Kalabin, P.G.Park, V.A.Ryabkov, Transportable calibration system for scalar geomagnetometers, Metrologia, 42 (2005), pp. 394-399, Paris.


Participation in the International Conferences

  1. V.Ya.Shifrin, C.G.Kim, P.G.Park, et al, “Measurement of proton gyromagnetic ratio in low field method”, CPEM-96, Paris, 1996
  2. V.Ya.Shifrin, P.G.Park, C.G.Kim, V.N.Khorev, C.H.Choi, “Experimental Determination of the Gyromagnetic Ratio of the Helium-4 Atom in Terms of that of the Helium-3 Nucleus”, CPEM-96, Paris, 1996
  3. V.Ya.Shifrin, P.G.Park, V.N.Khorev, C.H.Choi, and C.S.Kim, “A new low-field determination of the proton gyromagnetic ratio in water”, CCE-97, Paris, 1997
  4. V.Ya.Shifrin, P.G.Park, V.N.Khorev, et al, "Determination of the tesla-ampere ratio by modified electromagnetic method for measurement", CPEM-98, Washington, 1998
  5. Po Gyu Park, V.Ya.Shifrin, et al, "The System for Automatic Compensation of the Earth Magnetic Field and for Low Magnetic Field Reproduction", INTERMAG-99, Kwanju, S.Korea, 1999
  6. V.Ya.Shifrin, N.Khorev, A.E.Shilov, P.G.Park, “Standard quantum measuring system for reproduction and measurement of the low direct magnetic field in the range of 0,1 μT -1,5 mТ”, Conf. didjest CPEM-2004
  7. V.Ya.Shifrin, T.I.Chikvadze, Po Gyu Park, "A STANDARD CALIBRATION SYSTEM FOR GEOMAGNETOMETERS", XI IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisitions and Processing, Kakioka, Japan, 2004 <;i>V.Ya.Shifrin, J.L.Rasson, "PROJECT FOR GETTING THE GLOBAL NETWORK OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATORIES TO TAKE PART IN THE BIPM UNIFIED SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC INDUCTION MEASUREMENTS", XI IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisitions and Processing, Kakioka, Japan, 2004
  8. "Сs-He Optically Pumped Magnetometer. The Reference Standard of Magnetic Induction for National Metrological Centers", E.N.Pestov, V.A.Ryabkov, and V.Ya.Shifrin, Proceedings of 16th European Frequency and Time Forum, 12-14 March 2002, St.Petersburg, Russia
  9. V.Ya.Shifrin, T.I.Chikvadze, V.N.Kalabin, V.A.Ryabkov, Po Gyu Park, "Transportable calibration system for scalar geomagnetometers", XI IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisitions and Processing, Kakioka, Japan, 2004
  10. Po Gyu Park, V.Ya.Shifrin, Young Gyun Kim, V.N.Khorev, "Precise Standard System for Calibration of Low Field Magnetometers", XI IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisitions and Processing, Kakioka, Japan, 2004
  11. Po Gyu Park, V.Ya.Shifrin , Young Gyun Kim, Mun-Seog Kim, Kyu-Tae Kim, "Automatic Compensation of Earth Magnetic Field and Calibration System of Magnetometers Below 1 mT", INTERMAG-2005


Development of the Laboratory

Quantum current standard

Quantum current standard is a precision measuring system for reproduction of a DC current in the range 0.1 to 1 A.

The use of a precise differential current–to-frequency converter in the form of a single-layer quartz two-zone solenoid with two He-Cs atom magnetic resonance converters makes it possible to decrease the random standard uncertainty to 2·10-8 for 1 A current. The uncertainty of the conversion factor does not exceed 2·10-7 depending on the value of current.

The automatic control system decreases the initial current fluctuations more than 400 times, and eliminates the outside magnetic field effect in the 0 Hz to 0.15 Hz frequency range.

The long-time current drift of the output current is compensated at the level below 2·10-7 if the temperature change rate is below 0.5 K/h.













Transportable Calibration System for Scalar Geomagnetometers

The measuring instrumentation facility (MIF) is intended for calibration of precision quantum magnetometrs at the stage of their release as products and on the place of operation, as well as in geophysical expeditions.

MIF consists of the programmed quantum a magnetic field stabilizer and a standard quantum magnetometer. The stabilizer includes two zone source of the homogeneous magnetic field (TZS) oriented along the Earth magnetic field (EMF); the cesium atomic resonant converter to convert the magnetic field in the AC voltage frequency, quantum controller electronic system (to stabilize the magnetic field) and the programmed stabilizer of the direct current feeding one of two windings of the TZS. The real value of a number of the reproduced values of the magnetic field in the center of working volume of the TZS is determined by means of the standard magnetometer by the calibration of the system carried out before the calibration of the working magnetometer. In this process the sensor of the standard magnetometer is substituted by the sensor of the magnetometer under calibration, then the process of reproducing the set sequence of magnetic induction values (MIVs).

The TZS is a coil with seven sections round turns placed on a cylindrical carcass having a diameter of 560 mm and general length of 1030 mm. The form of the winding has been determined theoretically in order to create two areas with a set uniformity of the field having identical size and a direction. The centers of the two working areas are located at a distance of 0.52 m.

Because of the similarity of the conversion factors of TZS in two working areas, stabilized in the place of installation of the cesium controller sensor, in the same degree it will be stable in the second volume if the gradient of variations of an external magnetic field is identical.

The basic metrological parameters of the measuring system are as follows:

  • magnetic induction range: 20-100 μТ
  • reference points of field automatic reproduction: 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 μТ
  • total standard B-type uncertainty in calibration of magnetometers does not exceed 0.3 and 0.5 nТ in the spherical working areas with the diameter of 60 and 80 mm, respectively
  • random standard A-type uncertainty at the time of measurement of 1 s does not exceed 0,003 nТ
  • instabilityof the reproduced magnetic induction does not exceed: 0,1 nТ for 1 hour and 0,3 nТ for 8 hours of continuous work
  • overall dimensions and weight:
    TZS with the mechanical orientating system in transporting position - (1210 × 865 × 870) mm and 115 kg
    field stabilizing unit - (482 × 380 × 175) mm and 8 kg


Standard Helium-Cesium Atomic Magnetic Resonance Magnetometer

Standard is intended for absolute measurements of the dc scalar magnetic induction in the range from 100 nT to 1 mT with the random standard deviation below 0,003 nT at the measurement time of 2 s and the systematic standard uncertainty of 3·10-7.

The magnetometer consists of the following main parts: sensor for the conversion of magnetic induction to of aс voltage frequency, magnetic resonance signal formation unitand a notebook computer with the special functional software.

Total weight of the magnetometer is 12.5 kg (without computer).






Low-Frequency Precision Magnetometer

This device consisting of an induction converter and an electronic unit is intended for precision measurement of the AC magnetic induction by means of its conversion to AC voltage. The conversion factor does not depend on AC field frequency within the limits of 0.02 % in the range from 10 Hz up to 20 kHz and it diminishes down to - 5 % at the lower level of 1 Hz of the frequency range at the constant time of the intergrator equal to 0.5 s. The standard deviation of the measurement results does not exceed 0.01 %, 0.03 % and 0.1 % in frequency ranges from 500 Hz to 20 kHz, from 10 Hz to 500 Hz and from 1 Hz to 10 Hz, respectively. The conversion coefficient is 100 µV/nT. The measurement range is from 50 nT up to 10 µT.

Оverall dimensions of the induction converter are 48 × 165 mm, electronic unit - 160 × 65 × 36 мм mm, the weight of the primary converter being of 0.25 kg, and of the electronic unit (with the power cable) 0.35kg.

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